Together, these countries formed the British Empire. Spanish occupation and expulsion of settlers in 1782, Colony of the Bay Islands. "Popular Law Library Vol 1 Introduction To The Study Of Law Legal History", Peace Treaties and International Law in European History, From the Late Middle Ages to World War One, Burgundian and Habsburg in the Low Countries,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, English as a dominant or an official language, Northern part merged into Nigeria, southern part into the, Territory included former IBEAC territories and the strip of Sultan of Zanizbar's dominions on the coast of Kenya which fell within the British sphere of influence, Lands of Sultan of Zanzibar on coast administered with the Colony as one unit, Island leased from Spain so that Royal Navy could undertake anti-slavery operations on West Coast of Africa. British East Africa, territories that were formerly under British control in eastern Africa—namely Kenya, Uganda, and Zanzibar and Tanganyika (now Tanzania). Territorial evolution from the foundation of the English colonial empire to the present. Collectively, these territories are referred to as the British Empire. British raj, period of direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent from 1858 until the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom. These include Canada, Australia and New Zealand as well as several Caribbean states. Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands are the only British Overseas Territories with recognised National Olympic Committees (NOCs); the British Olympic Association is recognised as the appropriate NOC for athletes from the other territories, and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games. Dominion status was formally defined in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, which recognised these countries as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", thus acknowledging them as political equals of the United Kingdom; the Statute of Westminster 1931 converted this status into legal reality, making them essentially independent members of what was then called the British Commonwealth. Of the territories with a permanent population, all have at least some degree of internal self-government, with the United Kingdom retaining responsibility for defence and external relations. Since then, many territories around the world have been under the control of the United Kingdom or its predecessor states. Below are the British Commonwealth countries in alphabetical order. The British monarch is also Head of the Commonwealth, but this is a purely symbolic and personal title; members of the Commonwealth (including the Commonwealth realms) are fully sovereign states. The British Empire refers to the possessions, dominions and dependencies under the control of the Crown. Although the term British Isles has a long history of common usage, it has become increasingly controversial, especially for some in Ireland who object to its connotation of political and cultural connections between Ireland and the United Kingdom. Annexed as the latest territorial addition to the United Kingdom. Monaco. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), since 1922, comprises four constituent countries: England, Scotland, and Wales (which collectively make up Great Britain), as well as Northern Ireland (variously described as a country, province or region). Fifteen of these (known, with the United Kingdom, as the 16 Commonwealth realms) retain the British monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II) as Head of State. Jamaica: 6 August: 1962 Independence Day (6 August) When the Kingdom of Great Britain was formed in 1707 by the union of the Kingdom of Scotland with the Kingdom of England, the latter country's colonial possessions passed to the new state. [10][11], A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonisation. The tiny Principality of Monaco has been ruled by the Grimaldi … It was established in 1484 and as part of the Royal Household operates under the authority of the Crown. The British Empire is only one of the more recent ones and likely the only one you are familiar with coming from a largely English speaking bias. The majority of English speaking countries are part of the British Commonwealth. Eventually these were converted to Crown colonies. Within twenty years of the partition and independence in 1947 of British India (considered to be the most important colonial possession), most of the Empire's territories had achieved full independence. However, many of the Spaniards’ escaped slaves had formed communities in the highlands, and increasing numbers also escaped from British plantations. These are all independent countries -not ruled or governed by the UK. Many of the former territories of the British Empire are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Since then, many territories around the world have been under the control of the United Kingdom or its predecessor states. Every continent in the world has member countries that are part of the British Commonwealth of Nations. A protectorate differs from a "protected state". Upon much of Ireland gaining independence in 1922 as the Irish Free State, the other territories of the Empire remained under the control of the United Kingdom. Initially, the Dominions conducted their own trade policy, some limited foreign relations and had autonomous armed forces, although the British government claimed and exercised the exclusive power to declare wars. If they are not currently under British rule, these locations were at one time. [5] Most Crown colonies, especially the white settler colonies had a bicameral legislature, consisting of an upper house usually called the Legislative council, which members were appointed and served a similar purpose as the British House of Lords. In 1888 the Imperial British East Africa Company The British thought of their rule as a form of "autocratic paternalism." The Balfour Declaration brought to light the consensus that all British Empire countries were on par with the United Kingdom, which had not been the case beforehand. [9], A number of colonies in the 16th and 17th centuries were granted to a particular individual; these were known as proprietary colonies. [8], Charter colony is one of the three classes of colonial government established in the 17th-century English colonies in North America. Colonies were territories that were intended to be places of permanent settlement, providing land for their settlers. [12][13], A protectorate is a territory which is not formally annexed but in which, by treaty, grant or other lawful means, the Crown has power and jurisdiction. From there, the British Commonwealth started going by the Commonwealth of Nations, and you will commonly see it shortened as the Commonwealth. A protected state is a territory under a foreign ruler which enjoys British protection, over whose foreign affairs she exercises control, but in respect of whose internal affairs she does not exercise jurisdiction. A number of countries (dominions) within the British Empire gained independence in stages during the earlier part of the 20th century. Chartered companies were usually formed, incorporated and legitimised under a royal charter. The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century. [7] Later as the white colonies gained more internal responsible government, the lower house began to supersede the (usually unelected) upper house as the colonial legislature, and the position of Premier emerged. There were so many additions, alterations, and revisions to the Commonwealth of Nations until 1949. List of Commonwealth Countries - voting rights. ... European countries with interest in Africa met in Berlin in 1884 to divide the continent among themselves. They are Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu. British penetration of the area began at Zanzibar in the last quarter of the 19th century. These fifty-three nations have a combined population of over two-point-three billion people, with the most densely populated countries being Bangladesh, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. See England; Ireland; Northern Ireland; Scotland; United Kingdom; Wales. However, a lot of countries have since left the UK’s rule. Surrendered to Honduras in 1860, Part of colony of South Caribbean Islands, Part of colony of Antigua-Barbuda-Montserrat, Amalgamated with Saint Kitts to form the presidency of Saint Christopher and Nevis (within the Leeward Islands), Amalgamated with Nevis to form the presidency of Saint Christopher-Nevis (within the Leeward Islands), Part of province of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla of, Part of colony of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, Part of associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, Amalgamated with Tobago as "Trinidad and Tobago", United with Demerara-Essequibo to form British Guiana, Formed by the merger of the colonies of Berbice and Demerara-Essequibo, Merged with Essequibo to form Demerara-Essequibo, Formed by the merger of the separate colonies of Demerara and Essequibo, United with Berbice to form British Guiana, Merged with Demerara to form Demerara-Essequibo, Incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, Coastal settlements of southwestern Sumatra, subordinated to, Presidency of Coromandel and Bengal Settlements, Partitioned between [West] Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam, Lower and Upper Burma United as province of. Today, more than twenty countries around the world are still ruled by monarchies. Most converted to United Nations Trust Territories in 1946. The British Empire was composed of the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. Most people know her as the Queen of England, but Elizabeth II is actually the monarch of 16 different countries. The only country in South America that is part of the British Commonwealth is Guyana in the continent's northern region. There are 195 countries in this world and there are only few countries that are never ruled by the British Empire.British is the only one country who take over more countries all over the world.British Empire take over all over the world except only 22 countries. [2], Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century. Republicanism became more prevalent in the Early Modern period, but monarchy remained predominant in Europe during the 19th century.Since the end of World War I, however, most European monarchies have been abolished.There remain, as of 2020, twelve sovereign monarchies in Europe.Seven are kingdoms: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Spain, the Netherlands and Belgium. Fifty-three countries are recognized as part of the Commonwealth of Nations. Out of all fifty-three countries, India's population accounts for most of the Commonwealth's total population. The Commonwealth was initially formed at the beginning of the twentieth century following the decolonization of the British Empire, which began in 1945 and fully dismantled by 1997. However, after the passage of the Statute of Westminster the language of dependency on the Crown of the United Kingdom ceased, where the Crown itself was no longer referred to as the Crown of any place in particular but simply as "the Crown". Much of the rest of the Empire was dismantled in the twenty years following the end of the Second World War, starting with the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, and continued until the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997. Scotland and Ireland united with England, End of Republic. The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century. The Crown claimed absolute sovereignty over them, although they were not formally part of the United Kingdom itself. A number of German colonies and protectorates and Ottoman provinces were held as mandates by the United Kingdom (Tanganyika, British Cameroons, Togoland, Palestine and Mesopotamia); and its dominions of Australia (New Guinea, Nauru), New Zealand (Western Samoa), and South Africa (South West Africa). They are remnants of the British Empire and do not form part of the United Kingdom itself. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. When the Kingdom of Great Britain was formed in 1707 by the union of the Kingdom of Scotland with the Kingdom of England, the latter country's colonial possessions passed to the new state. Scotland independent again but in personal union with England, Political union with Scotland to form the, Formed by union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, Union of Great Britain with Ireland to form the, United States of Ionian Islands, under British protection, Kingdom subordinated to the English (later British) Crown. Proprietary colonies in America were governed by a Lord Proprietor, who, holding authority by virtue of a royal charter, usually exercised that authority almost as an independent sovereign. Members of the Executive Council were not necessarily members of the lower house but were usually members of the upper house. A lot of this comes from it's geographical position. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom. The policy of granting or recognizing significant degrees of self-government by dependencies, which was favoured by the far-flung nature of … ... but in 1841 New Zealand became a British colony in its own right. Similarly, when Great Britain was united with the Kingdo… The British also created "divide and rule" policies, pitting Hindu and Muslim Indians against one another. LOCKDOWN will be “gradually lifted” in March once all over 70s have received the coronavirus vaccine, the government hopes. It is an island, so it is well protected, having a water barrier, and on top of that was the dominant navy force for most of the time. The reason that the British Commonwealth altered the name was that the member countries started to include territories under the rule of the British Empire, but not physically near or within Britain. Albert II, Prince of Monaco. United with England and Ireland as the Commonwealth of England. China is now a powerful and a well developed country in the world and China is also in the list … The very first title of this political association amongst various countries was the British Commonwealth of Nations. This is what British historian Stuart Laycock learned after his son asked him how many countries Britain had invaded. From 1714 to 1837 the British throne was held by a series of kings who were also the rulers of the German state of Hanover. T he other countries must feel so left out. They held a consultative position, however, and did not serve in administrative offices as cabinet ministers do. Vaccines minister … Spanish sovereignty recognized in 1748, Illegal but well-established English settlements. In 1905, the colonial government divided Bengal into Hindu and Muslim sections; this … These included what are now Kenya, Sudan, Lesotho, Botswana, Northern Somalia, Egypt, Eastern Ghana, Gambia, Niger, and Benin. All territories in Canada are part of the Commonwealth, and the same is true of Australia. Independent again but in personal union with England, Formal name changed from "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" to "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", Annexed into England by Act of English Parliament, Devolved National Assembly established (renamed to, Part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Crown colony (with the same Governor of the Tuvalu colony), Colony administered with the same Governor of, Great Britain formally recognises the independence of the United States. Instead, the British assumed Indians had to be ruled by heavy hand with democratic opportunities postponed indefinitely, although some English historians argued that the so-called liberal imperialists truly believed that the British rule would bring the benefits of … The British rule may have united India, but in their absence, the result is the presence of 60-100 princely states that co-exist as rivals or alliances. Several provinces and territories have joined since Confederation. It was unclear if the spike was due to the presence of the U.K. virus variant, of which only one case has so far been confirmed in a visiting British citizen. Since land ownership was widespread, most white men could vote. These were all places Britain wanted to dominate for access to goods such as rubber, salt, gold, ivory, and other natural products. [17], The British Raj, also called the Indian Empire, was the imperial political structure in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947, comprising British India (a Crown colony: presidencies and provinces directly governed by the British Crown through the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) and Princely States, governed by Indian rulers, under the suzerainty of the British Crown exercised through the Viceroy and Governor-General of India.[18]. New research shows that practically everyone has been invaded by British troops at one point or another. The College of Arms is the authority on the flying of flags in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and maintains the only official register of flags for these countries. In theory these territories were governed on behalf of the League of Nations for the benefit of their inhabitants. Britain was the dominant world power about 100–200 years ago. Abolished with the reversal of the partition and the creation of the new province of, Administration while nominally remaining part of the, Two sovereign base areas remain under British sovereignty; see under "Akrotiri and Dhekelia", Conquest of principality of Gwynedd (last remaining independent Welsh principality), Annexation of Principality of Wales and Marcher Lordships into England, Republic as the Commonwealth of England. The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies (the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man) and its overseas territories.